Surgical Insemination is performed under anesthesia and a small incision is made into the abdominal cavity. The procedure allows the veterinarian to examine the reproductive organs and inject the semen sample directly into the uterus via a catheter. This technique is usually reserved for frozen semen samples, questionable quality semen, and previously infertile females. To maximize conception rates and litter sizes, LH testing and complete progesterone timing is critical.